My English Writings @ Talcher

Published On 03-10-2023

A critique on Professor Nandini Sahu's ‘Sita’
Dinesh Kumar Mali
“Why do I translated Dr. Nandini Sahu's ‘Sita’ ?”- I was asking many times this question to myself because this translation was a supernatural phenomenon for me.
Before reading 'Sita' written by Prof. Sahu in English, neither did I know about her, nor I read her work in detail. Coincidentally, when I was doing MA (English) from IGNOU and Folk Literature was as one of my optional subjects.For this course, she was the Co-ordinator. One day, all of a sudden, while searching some free books in Amazon's Kindle, I found her 'Sita' on my screen. I downloaded it and immediately started to read it with cursory glance.
At the same time, I decided if I got time, I would translate it into Hindi. Fortunately, the first lock-down due to COVID made my dream into reality. No doubt, she not only cooperated me, but guided a lot during the translation. Firstly, I translated this epic in free verse, but she advised me that it would be better, if I translate it in three lines using rhythmic words.
Although many times I did not know the exact meaning of some lines Cantos in English version, but appropriate Hindi words automatically came on tip of my tongue, and sometimes by combination and permutation. The rhythm in Hindi was also maintained. The first draft of translation was nearly completed in fifteen days.
Although I was involved in translation work since a decade, but some strange phenomenon of Sita's translation had completely engulfed my mind, which was actually beyond to express in words, how this translation inspired me to study various Ramayanas thoroughly.
I feel If we study our scriptures carefully, we will find different stories or parables mentioned in different Ramayanas on same character, which establishes either these Ramayans are complementary or inter-related to each other.
The Ramayana narrated by Lord Shiva has hundred thousand verses. Sixty thousand in Hanuman’s Ramayana, twenty four thousand in Valmiki's Ramayana and other poets have composed Ramayanas of lesser verses.
Most of the academicians consider Ramayana as Ramakatha (the informal story of Rama) . It is true that very little attention is paid to the narratives formally written by a poet or author. As it has already been said that there are many Ramakathas or Ramayanas, which influence each other to some extent. European and American scholars have been conducting research studies on Ramayana in different ways since last two centuries. They have been collecting translations of many rare Ramayanas to make their studies universally acceptable. European scholars drew attention towards ruler's viewpoint in the colonial period considering the Ramayana as a product of racism e.g., Aryan versus Dravidian, North versus South, Vaishnava vs Shaiva, Priest vs King etc, whereas American thinkers thought it a writing of the post-colonial era because many factors of Ramayana such as gender discrimination or caste-conflict, due to which how a man becomes a demon, alongwith analyzing reasons, reshaping the form of devotion in feudal times.
Indian researchers tried to adopt a defensive attitude in the pursuit of justifying their heroes and deities. Not only this, modern scholars also find themselves unable to classify the Ramayana accurately.
• Is the Ramayana really a historical text (as right-wing scholars believe) ?
• Is this a literary propaganda raised for the society (as the leftist thinkers believe)?
• Is it really the story of God, which is believed by the devotees ?
• Is it only a fictional blueprint of the human mind or an attempt to express ideal human behavior?
On analyzing the many stories of Ramayana, three important views emerge:-
1) First-modern approach- According to which Valmiki's Ramayana written in Sanskrit is recognized.
2) The second-post-modern approach- According to which all Ramayanas have equal beliefs.
3) The third post-modern approach– According to this approach, the view of the believer should be welcomed.
Some critics consider this legendary epic, which has influenced the Indian culture for thousands of years, as irrational. The aim of modern education is to make the society rational. In 1987, when TV serial 'Ramayana' produced by Ramanand Sagar was broadcasted every sunday morning, the whole country remained standstill at that time. Similar, situation arose in 2020 in pandemic period.
The crushing of the secular heart of the nation as well as for the pathetic condition of Indian women, Ramayana was held responsible by some critics. Despite this, still advantage of this epic is being taken by some politicians, critical fact-finding is being done by feminist writers and deconstruction is being made by the academicians. It is still considered a source of hope and joy to millions of people.
The literature related to Ramayana can be studied in four periods. The first period dates back to the second century, when the final form of Valmiki's Ramayana was almost ready. In second period (from the second century to the tenth century), many plays and poems were composed in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. One can also try to find Rama in Buddhist and Jain traditions during this period, but in Puranic literature, Rama can be seen as Vishnu. The third period is after the tenth century, when the Ramayana became a text of the common man's language against the increasing dominance of Islam. During this period 'Ramayana' appeared more devotional and Rama was described as God and Hanuman as the most beloved devotee and servant. Finally, in the fourth period, from the nineteenth century, the Ramayana began to be heavily influenced by European and American perspectives and concepts of Deconstruction and Re-imagination were seen in the Ramayana to get fair justice on the basis of modern political systems. Thus, decoding of Ramayan was started.
The Ramayana continued to travel orally (from 500 B.C. to 200 B.C.) and later on, was composed finally in the Sanskrit language. Valmiki’s Ramayana is traditionally counted as the first poem. All subsequent poets considered him as the father of Rama's poetry. This work of Valmiki was spread by the Yayavar (nomadic) castes all around the world. The original work consisted of two main works collections, first related to north and second related to south. Rama's childhood is depicted in the first seven chapters and Sita's abandonment by Rama in the last chapters. The then Brahmins strongly opposed writing the story in Sanskrit, only accepted the oral tradition (Shruti), while Buddhist and Jain scholars preferred writing instead of orality.
It was the first time, in Pali and Prakrit languages, the story of Rama was written. The provincial Ramayanas were composed first in South India in the twelfth century, then in Eastern India in the fifteenth century and later in the 16th century in North India. Most of the women's Ramayana were oral and used in songs on various domestic traditions and other festivals. Although it is also true, in the sixteenth century two women wrote the Ramayana, Moa in Telugu and Chandravati in Bengali. Most of the male writers who wrote the Ramayana belonged to different classes. Buddha Reddy (from the landlord's house), Balarama Das and Sarala Das (from the Backward Castes) and Kamban belonged to the castes, who played the music in the temple. In the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperor Akbar, respecting the culture of his people, ordered for translation of Ramayana from Sanskrit to Persian and also allowed the painters to outline this epic using Persian technique. All these pictures of Ramayana can be easily seen in carvings of the palaces of the kings of Rajasthan, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.
In 2014, English Professor Nandini Sahu published a realistic version of Ram-Katha empathetically from Sita's view. It was published by The Poetry Society of India, Gurgaon. The character of Anasuya, Kaushalya, Sumitra, Kaikeyi, Tadaka, Ahalya, Manthara, Shrutkirti, Urmila, Mandvi, Sita, Shabarikha, Shurpanakha were penned with a modern perspective on women's discourse in this epic. Additionally, Tara, Sursa , Lankini , Trijata, Mandodari, Sulochana, Dhobin etc. Were also characterized on the same canvas. The role of the then women in social, political, economic spheres was also taken into account along-with spiritual consciousness in absolute sense and right meaning. For capturing all the above aspects, you have to read this epic many times, even though indeed some of the then characters like Shanta, (sister of Rama), mother of Shambuk are missing.
The poetess Sahu alluded the origin of Sita in the second canto of this epic. The fertile land of Mithlanchal was turned into a barren land due to someone's curse. There was neither crop, nor rain. Due to the terrible famine,the thousands of people died. King Janak heard the hearsay of the people. In the middle of the night, if King plow in a barren agricultural field, Lord Indra will make that land fertile by rain water. Perhaps it was a popular superstition in society that time. But according to the poetess, while driving the plough, suddenly tip of plow collided with the Kumbh buried in a pile of dry soil.
In that Kumbh, a newly born child as a result of a secret love affair between a nymph and a Brahmin was kept. The lines of the second canto are as follows:-
I am Sita, Janaka-Nandini-Janaki, the doting daughter
of my father, king Janaka. I am born in a furrow from
mother earth in the sanctified sacrificial grounds.

The couple might have left her open to die in a pot, wrapped in clothes out of fear of social reproach. Was it the unwanted birth of Sita ? The childless King Janak overjoyed after receiving ‘Sita’ as priceless gift from Mother Earth. Can one believe this strange story ?
Taking the story of the poet Sita forward, she writes in the third canto:-
Shiva's colossal bow, the divine Shiva Dhanush
the Pinaka, ;gifted to my father by
sage Parashurama for sate -keeping

while he accomplished penance. Dhanurveda
says it came to Parashuram
from Lord Shiva. How could I have

known the sanctity, the reverence ? I didn't
understand, why a wave of something like
the tail-end of a sad dream swept through

my father whenever he saw it. Father
had a dream in him. It was pitiless.
Nothing worthy came at autonomy. Even the Shiva Dhanush.

Pain was his currency. But he had this
cheerful devotion, a guilelessness, and
an unabashed hopefulness, for me, his daughter Maithili.

Not only, she was emotionally attached with her parent, but also she won the heart of local people. She became proficient in all the disciplines of weapon handling. For her marriage, her father sent an extraordinary invitation of swayamvara in all four directions to find the best groom that whoever would lift the oldest bow of the lord Shiva and pull it up to the arrow, he would be the worthy groom for his daughter. Sita also had a deep reverence for Lord Shiva in her heart. During cleaning of this bow, kept in the temple built in the courtyard, Sita easily picked it up and kept it from one place to another. Perhaps the King did not know that Sita was an extra-ordinary girl, endowed with divine powers. That's Why he announced that whoever plucked it, he would be Sita's husband. When Sita came to know about the glory of Shiva's bow, she prayed to Lord Shiva to forgive her crime. When she was coming out of the Shiva temple after offering prayers, two well-formed, handsome princes were passing by, accompanied by Vishwamitra. Their bursting into laughter was disturbing Sita's consciousness, while beating melodious drums. She hesitated and was ashamed. Later, she came to know that both of them were Rama and Lakshmana, the sons of Dasharatha, the King of Ayodhya. Sita remembered the prayer made in the Shiva temple and accepted Rama as her groom at first sight. But she worried that what would happen to her life if Rama could not lift Shiva's bow or some other warrior picked it up. Ravana, born in the family of Pulastya Rishi, was unable to lift Shiva's bow, while Rama passed the test. Just as She was going to garland Rama, a furious Parashurama, the ardent devotee of Lord Shiva, appeared there and was ready to kill Rama who broke the bow of Shiva. But Rama cooled the atmosphere with his sweet behavior. And Sita got married.

The second episode of the newly wedded Sita was eagerly waiting in the palace of Ayodhya. After sometime Rama was exiled for fourteen years and she stubbornly decided to go with Rama, even though she knew that she had to go through many dangerous ordeals. But Sita was satisfied that she could experience the exclusive and tangible affection of her husband, unlike the life of a lonely woman, who was drenched with tears inside without being scorched in the fire outside. Exclusive love of Lakshmana, goodwill of forest dwellers, monkeys, bears, demons living in the forest, motherly respect from Hanuman, clever-love of Nishadraj (Kevat), bereaved call of Giddharaj Jatayu, respect by godly soul Vibhishana, the affection of Trijata in Ashoka-Vatika, the kind-hearted behavior of Kumbhakarna towards her and the condemnation of Ravana- all such experiences were earned by Sita in fourteen years, which are indescribable even today. Even today, researchers search the motive behind Sita's abduction from different angles. Some thinkers consider it revenge for the insult of Surpanakha, while others consider it as a tool to save Sita from the calamities of the forest by keeping her in Ashoka Vatika. That's why Trijata was appointed to protect Sita.
In the sixth canto, the poetess Dr Nandini Sahu wants to say:-
Came Ravana in a sage's austere camouflage
begging alms at our door, pleaded me to cross
the line; and then seized me Ravana, the treacherous.

I wailed, shrieking the forest, and Jatayu came
to my rescue, but in vein. The crime of the chaos
against all sanctities was done with my abduction.

Frailty, the name is not woman. But I have
learnt, the feeble and freckle mind of a woman
for the golden-deer became her hydra-headed monster.

You had advised me to ignore the deer because Nature
doesn't produce animals of gold. Going beyond her
I had summoned the wrath of Mother Nature.
Even if Ravan wanted while asking for alms in the guise of a sage, he could have abducted Sita by entering the hut seeing her alone, but the Lakshman Rekha (Maryada Rekha) was crossed by Sita herself. Was it necessary for her to give alms to an unknown man, when she knew that her one step could lead her to hell ?
In modern era, becoming gullible in front of clever, cunning, sly, lustful people is not a synonym for stupidity. In this way, the poetess took all the blame of the crime on her head, such as her not being able to give up the greed of getting the skin of a golden colored deer, despite being explained by her husband Ram about the calamities, troubles and inconveniences of the forest.
Sita might have conquered Lord Kama in the presence of the supremely renounced Lakshmana, but her subconscious fascination towards gold ornaments turned into a desire to acquire the golden skin of a deer. Did Sita, who was born out of the Earth, forget that the real gold was only the Earth, then why did her desire to kill ruthlessly a beautiful wild animal awaken in her mind? Was the punishment for this murder converted into a great punishment by the Creator ? For a long period in golden Lanka, separated from her husband, Was she forced to lead a lonely life ? Was the skin of the golden deer a representation of Rama's exclusive love ? The curtain over her eyes was opened when Hanuman, in the blink of an eye, burned all of Lanka with his tail and exposed the falsehood of gold by throwing a gold ring bearing the name of Rama to reveal his identity. The ascetic Hanuman wanted to free her from the dazzling Maya. In the words of the poetess in canto IX :-
Ravana's blazing anger knew no bounds.
To set fire on his tail, he issued orders.

As Hanuman's tail-end was ablaze, he was bemused.
Rama's glory, Sita's blessings, Wind-God's inheritance made
fire abstain from burning him, he was released.

To my utter surprise and amusement
Hanuman leapt like a flash over
the minarets and palaces, monuments and mountains

burning the extravagant golden Lanka
spreading a million sparks. After
destroying half of Lanka, he dipped

The poetess would like to say that seeing the golden Lanka burning in the fire, Sita felt the ordeal of her life on beach, Sita reached Ayodhya with her deepest grief once again as the wife of the oppressed frivolous man. Disappointed with the conversation, she blindly obeyed the orders of the king. Lakshman had to leave her pregnant sister-in-law in the jungle. Adikavi sage Valmiki emerged as second father of her with his affectionate protection, Sita gave birth to two sons Luv and Kush, gave them the best values, educated them in weaponry, made them qualified. In the guidance of the great poet, the magical music descended in their voice. When they reached Ayodhya, reciting this tale of Rama, they were called with respect to the royal court and when they were asked to introduce themselves. They replied with childish agility, “The king is the father of the people, therefore You are our father,also. It was the matter of sadness that after listening the domestic nonsense of some foolish, he threw his pregnant wife Sita out of the country. Can this misdeed raise the head of the entire Raghuvansh ? Our mother is Sita. What could be our second challenge! You are a father only to be called.”
Saying this Luv and Kush returned to Valmiki's ashram. The entire court remained stunned and speechless. After sometime Ram, Lakshmana, Hanuman, Bharat, Shatrughna, minister Sumant all reached Valmiki's ashram and requested him to take his family back to Ayodhya. But Sita rejected and conveyed her indescribable pain to Rama through Hanuman that he had to wait for the right time, to qualify his sons Lava and Kush, as well as eradication of superstitions,hypocrisy and evils prevalent in the society.
After sometime Rama announced the Ashwamedha Yagya. The horse was caught by the young Luv-Kush as challenging for war. The entire team of Rama became unconscious and then they were to kill the Rama. Sita stopped them saying, one who has knowledge of the weapon should know the utility of the weapon. A son who takes up arms against his father, is in vain.
On the instructions of Sita, they touched holy feet of Rama. At that time also Rama urged everyone to go to Ayodhya. But Sita turned down his fervent request that she might not get the same prestige when she returned home, however innocent she would be. I died for myself at the same time you instructed me to go in the forest. It would have been the last day of my life, if Maharishi Valmiki was not present there. I was only alive till now for Luv-Kush, now handing them over to you with the unshakable belief that you would always love them. I bid farewell to you and want to join that soil, through which my mother had given me safe shelter. During the time of Lanka-Dahan, I understood, final destiny is to be mixed in the soil, then why will not I do some such work through which immortality may be given to it.
Poetess Prof. Nandini Sahu asked some questions to Rama through Sita. In Canto XIII :-
"Do sin and purity lay in a woman's body my Lord? Or do
they inhabit in one's mind? Had Ravana violated my body
when I was marooned in Lanka, the fault wouldn't have been mine!"
Shame on you woman! Shame Situ! Fie! Fie!!
Arguing with your lord, your master, publicly, that too about
Your body, which belongs to only him! Your body is a private entity!!

The legend of being absorbed into the earth has been accepted by the poetess Dr. Nandini Sahu as a supernatural miracle, only then she writes: -
The miracle happened, the redemption emanated.
When I was in the trance of unconditional renunciation, the
earth got divided at my feet, and a golden throne arose.

Mother Earth, the Ultimate Woman, arose and took me in
her lap when you and the whole of Ayodhya was
bemused with disbelief. Time and tides stood still for awhile.

But in the modern age, this miracle is not easily digested by the readers. It might be she would have committed suicide by jumping into blind well. But her suicide left many unanswered and burning questions before the Suryavanshis, to think the answer for the coming millennia. Strangely, no ray of the sun till date could enter into that blind well.
In the first canto itself, the poetess addresses Sita by many names such as Sita , Vaidehi , Janaki , Rama.
Call her what you may-Sita, janaki,
Vaidehi, Ramaa-she is Woman.
She is every woman, the propagated, interpolated role model..
According to Ramopkhyan , there are different beliefs about the origin of Sita such as the adopted daughter of King Janak and Queen Sunayana of Janakpur.
Sitamarhi, Nepal (in north-eastern Mithila) is believed as the birth place of Sita, which is near the border of Janakpur in south Bihar.
In the Valmiki Ramayana , Sita is said to have originated from the land, while in the " Ramayana Manjari" she was daughter of Janaka and Menaka, in the Mahabharata Ramopakhayan and in Vimal Suri's ' Paum Chariyam' , Sita is said to be the real daughter of Janak. In some versions of the Ramayana, Vedvati, tortured by Ravana's atrocities born as Sita. According to the Gunabhadra’s Uttara Purana, Meenavati, the daughter of Amit Veda of Alkapuri, born from the womb of Ravana and Mandodari. In the Jain version, Sita is considered as the daughter of Ravana. In the Skanda Purana, it is mentioned that Vedavati became Padmavati and she married Vishnu.
In later versions of the Ramayana, Vedavati vows to take birth for Ravana's death as he molested her. The fire god cannot burn her, hides her and puts another woman in place of Sita before abduction. Thus She was a duplicate Sita, whom Ravana picked up and brought to Lanka. The real Sita returned to Rama after Vedavati's ordeal. Vedavati is known as Vaishno Devi in Jammu.She beheaded Bhairav, who wanted to forcefully make her his wife. After that, his cut head apologized saying that he was practicing some traditions. For which a woman was needed, who could free him from the cycles of rebirth. Then she said - "You worship me, I will set you free", saying that Vedavati turned into goddess Vaishnodevi. Blood sacrifices are performed at the Shakti Peethas for most of the deities, while Vaishnodevi is a separate Shakti Peeth as she is a vegetarian goddess. It is confirming the Vaishnava sect. Did Ram-Lakshman- Sita eat meat while living in the forest? Even today this question remains unanswered. Whereas in ancient times, non-vegetarian food was not looked with disgusting eyes. In many paintings, Rama and Lakshmana are shown hunting wild animals, in some cases even while roasting meat. This scene is in line with the Kshatriya family. Later, with the expansion of Buddhism, Jainism and Vaishnava sects, vegetarianism came to be considered a symbol of upper caste system. In Valmiki Ramayana, Sita is unhappy with the hunting of animals.
In this way, even today the educated people are kept away from the truth by giving different forms to different stories. Does literature lead us to ideological slavery or does literature inspire us to live a true life ? It is true that by presenting her life as an example, Sita has definitely established in the whole world that the relation between Indian husband and wife is very much close and intimate. The poetess of " Sita " narrates in the fourth canto of the epic :-
I am the dutiful, beautiful wife of Rania,
my story is to best observance of dharama
not withstanding the harsh tests of life and time.
Mahatma Jyotiba Phule considered Ramayana as imaginary and unbelievable epic in his book "Sarvajanik Satyadharma ". Firstly, how did Ravana succeed in running away like a wolf, carrying her who could lift the bow of Shiva, but Ravana could not ? Secondly, if Ravana had a different caste other than human , then how did King Janak invite Ravana of other caste to join swayamvar ceremony ? This proves that the castes of Rama and Ravana were not separate. It seems that the history of Ramayana would have been written on the basis of imagination only to entertain the hearts of the people at that time.

The colossal bow was the backdrop,
the condition to my Swayamvar.

I ponder over idea of father's choice of a groom for me
-how could the Swayamvar be interrogated thus?
The choice of husband should be the woman's prerogative, not father's

Swayamvar is still thought as an absurd and anti-feminist tradition. Because in this tradition, any man,worthy or unworthy, young or old, can participate. If Ravana would have broken the bow of Shiva, then according to the rules, Sita would have been married to Ravana. Ravana was a king, so how could he have begged for alms ? Ravana was the originator of the Raksh culture and a staunch opponent of Aryan culture . Ram wanted to stop Sita from going into the forest by saying that there was no other religion than serving her mother-in-law. But Sita beat the drum of rebellion by saying that she could not survive even a moment without Rama. To give scientific forms to the myths, the poetess has attributed the call of calamities to the greedy women by linking their hankering with golden deer, the fascination for gold ornaments, golden Lanka, etc. There is a lot of scope for discussion about feminism in the characterization of Sita. Modern contemplations imposing limitations on the women imprisoned them inside the palaces is also inevitable. Sita had exiled in Lanka for fourteen months. After killing Ravana, when Sita came to meet Rama, seeing her ebullient face, Rama said – “ I have not won this war to get you. I doubt you. Just like the light of a lamp is not liked by the patient of the eye, in the same way you are distasteful for me today. You are free now , all these ten directions are open to you. I allow you to go wherever you wish . Ravana has casted his dirty glance on you. In this state, I cannot accept you. Lakshmana, Bharata or Shatrughna can live with you, if you want and if you want, you can also live with Sugriva or Vibhishana." (Valmiki Ramayana ).
The poetess Dr. Nandini Sahu through Sita in the fifteenth canto exposed women's discourse:-
"Siteh! I abandon you from today;
I took revenge on Ravana for being a coward,
a thief to abduct a lonely, hapless woman.

Hanuman, Lakshniana, Sugreeva, Vibishana
made it achievable; but the war was surely not for your
sake, it was to redeem my forefathers' honour.

My eyes perforate my heart at your very sight.
You lived alone in another man's house day and night.
No man of your clan, nor your husband, was there to protect!

Ravana could not have left you unpolluted
after all You are a fine-looking, desirable woman!
All d II glory and grace have left you now, you are besmirched .

You were born of unknown parenthood
thus your purity was already half -challenged.
Now you have lost it all; you must not be chaste anymore,

A woman can never situate herself alone, she is
ever a limerick, a running stream or a creeper.
She needs a man every time to safeguard her

The dignity of a king prevents him from
accommodating a wife and a queen like you,
since you have crossed the 'Lakshmana rekha.

You are free to take your decisions now on and
show not yourself to me, go back wherever.
Find for yourself, woman, another protector and provider."

How the harsh words of Rama made her heart broken into fragments, is also mentioned by the poetess in the sixteenth canto. Due to which, a rebellious woman was born inside her ! This rebellious woman has been raised by the Adi poet Valmiki, because he too was agitated by the behavior of Rama. Valmiki, who praised Rama, stood by her side with full vengeance. He told Ram in front of everyone -

"When Hanuman came to see me, then why didn't you abandon?
He informed me of your deep pain of separation.
This is immoral to betray a woman of pure emotion.

I would have ended my life had Hanuman told me
that my husband's faith is no more mine.
But you hadn't sent a message about my conjugal betrayal.

You are 'maryada purusottam , the best of all men.
Yet you employ such foul tongue for a woman!
For the blunder of Ravana, your wife you condemn?

You are behaving with me just as a market man speaks to a marketable woman. Why didn't you abandon me when you sent Hanuman to search for me in Lanka ? If you had abandoned me at that time, I would have given up my life in front of Hanuman. Then you would not have jeopardized your life in this vain war etc and neither did your friends suffer unnecessarily. Have you shown your pettiness by doubting my modesty ? After this Sita asked Lakshmana to get the pyre prepared. Jumping into the pyre, she said, " If I am completely spotless, then let Lord Agni protect me" . Valmiki wrote that Agni did not even touch Sita at all. But we do not know , what actually would have happened ? May be, Sita would have been saved before she could jump into the fire as the flames do not leave anyone. Ram's doubts were over in front of the public. And then he accepted Sita. Her life is expressed by most writers as a tragedy in the forest. They see life in the jungle as poverty, not intelligence.
But a sage is never poor even if he has nothing wordly material. They forget that wealth in India is considered only functionally and not as an indicator of self-creation. Sita is also a single mother like Kunti of Mahabharata, Jabala of Upanishads and Shakuntala, mother of Bharata. In Wayanad , Kerala, there is a temple of Sita along with her two sons. There are many twists in the Ramayana of Kerala that are not found in Valmiki Ramayana, the local people of Wayanad believe that the events of Ramayana happened around them. The book 'Ram Katha' by Father Kamil Bulke anthologized different stories about the birth of Sita. In Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the surrounding areas of India, sometimes King Janak, sometimes Ravana and even Dasharatha are depicted as the father of Sita.
1. Janak Atmaja - In the Adi Ramayana composed by Valmiki, Sita is described as daughter of Janak. The story of Rama is repeated four times in the Mahabharata. But nowhere is the story of her mysterious birth described. Not even in Ramopakhayan, everywhere she is called Janak Atmaja. There is also not mentioned the supernatural origin of Sita in Harivansh's Ram Katha .
According to Jain Paumcharias, Sita was born with her bright aura from Videha, wife of Janak. As soon as she was born, the aura was picked up by a deity and left with another king. There is no son of Janak in Valmiki Ramayana, but in Brahmanda Purana, Vishnu Purana, Vayu Purana, 'Pradhyot ' is said to be the son of Janak. In the Kalika Purana, Narada, advised the childless father to perform a yajna, giving example that four sons were born to Dasharatha due to the effect of the yajna. By performing yagya, Janaka receives two sons in addition to one daughter. Skandpuran has a totally different story.
2 Bhumija– The supernatural origin of Sita is described twice in Valmiki Ramayana. One day while King Janak was ploughing to prepare the Yagya- land, a small girl emerged from the soil. He assumed her as daughter and named her Sita. This account of Sita's birth is found in most of the Ramayana.
It is possible that the supernatural birth story of Bhumija Sita originated from the influence of the presiding deity of agriculture. I do not say that this Vedic goddess of agriculture and Ramayana's Sita are inseparable. Vedic Sita is not historical but is the result of humanization of Sita. i.e. Langal method.
Balramdas (Aranyakand) writes that while plowing the plough, Janaka, seeing Maneka, expressed his desire to get a girl like her. Knowing his wish, Maneka assured him that he would get a beautiful girl from me.
The story of Vedavati, which is found in the Uttarkand of Valmiki Ramayana, must have also written at that time. The previous birth of Sita has been described in this account, so at the time of her origin, the theory of Sita being an incarnation of Lakshmi was not universally accepted. The story is as follows:-
Vedavati, the daughter of sage Kushadhwaja, performed penance in the Himalayas with the aim of getting Narayan as her husband. His father also had such aspirations. Kushadhwaj was killed by a king for refusing to give his daughter to him. Someday the sight of Ravana fell on that girl. Captivated by her beauty, he grabed her by hair. Vedavati freed herself by cutting her hair from his hand. At the end, she cursed Ravana and prophesied that she would take birth again as Ayonija for his destruction. Finally, she entered into the fire and later born in Janaka's Yagyabhoomi.
This story has been rectified in Shrimad Bhagwat Purana and Brahmavaivarta Purana. Kushadhwaj and his wife Malvati worshipped Lakshmi and got a boon from her to have her as daughter. Lakshmi sung Vedic mantras as soon as she was born; For this reason, she was given the name of Vedavati. After some time she did penance to choose Hari as her husband, but being humiliated by Ravana, she cursed him that She would become the cause of his destruction. Atlast, she gave up her body on the strength of yoga and later was born as Sita. It is clear that the story of Vedavati has been revamped with the inspiration of the belief that Sita and Lakshmi were being humiliated.
3. Ravanatmaja- Among the other stories, we analyze here , the most ancient and popular story, in which Sita is considered the daughter of Ravana. We find this story in India, Tibet, Khotan (East Turkestan), Hindsia and Shyam. The oldest form of this story in India is preserved in Vasudevhinid. According to this, Vidyadhar Maya went to Ravana and proposed the marriage of his daughter Mandodari with him. As he knew that Mandodari's first child was going to be the cause of the destruction of his clan. Fascinated by Mandodari's beauty, so Ravan decided to give up his first child and married her. Later, Mandodari gave birth to a daughter. Keeping it in a box with gems, ordered ministers to leave it somewhere. The minister kept it in Janak's field. Later, it was told that this girl was born from the line of the plow. Janaka accepted her and handed over to Queen Dharini. The Vedavati story of Vasudevhinid have been coordinated in the following story of the Uttara Purana of Gunabhadra.
Manimati, daughter of King Amitveg of Alkapuri, used to meditate on the Vijayartha (Vindhya) mountain. Ravana tried to get her. Due to these obstacles arising in accomplishment, Manimati got angry and decided that by becoming the daughter of Ravana, she would become the cause of his destruction. As a result, she took birth from the womb of Mandodari. As soon as she was born, many bad omen started happening in Lanka. Seeing this, the astrologers said that this girl would be the reason for the destruction of Ravana. On this Ravana ordered Maricha to leave her in some distant country. Mandodari kept the girl in a box along with the money and the introductory letter. Marich buried her in the land of Mithila, where she was found by the farmers on the same day. The farmers took him to Janak. Opening the box, Janak took the girl out of it and handed over her to his wife Vasudha, ordering her to nurture as a daughter. It is also mentioned in “Maha Bhagavata Purana ” that Sita is born from Mandodari.
According to the Uttara Purana of Gunabhadra, the daughter of Mandodari was thrown into the sea against the prediction of her father's destruction, but she was saved and raised by the farmers. Her name was Lilavati.
4. Padmaja - The story of Bhumija Sita of Ramayana is accepted here . There is a difference between Sita and Lakshmi. Padma is another name of Lakshmi and probably used for Padmaja Sita.
Ravana repeatedly visited a specific place. He saw a mountain there, then a city, then a forest, then a wide pit and finally a beautiful lake filled with lotuses. Establishing a Shiva linga there, Ravana worshiped Shiva with the lotus of the lake. On one kanaka-padam, he saw a girl, who was the Lakshmi. He took her as his daughter and brought her to Lanka and handed over to Mandodari. One day Narad reached there and saw her in Mandodari’s lap, told that this girl would later become dangerous for Ravana. Hearing this, Mandodari locked her in a golden box and threw in a distant country. Janaka received the box, while driving the golden plow for the Yagya.
5 Raktja - In many ancient stories, Sita is believed to be born from the blood of sages. Ravana arrested some sages of Dandakaranya. They offered Ravana few drops of their blood, which are collected in a vessel. Ravana took that vessel to Lanka and gave it to Mandodari saying, "It is full of intense poison." After some time Ravana left for another voyage. Hearing illicit relationship of Ravana with another women, Mandodari drunk that blood with the intention of committing suicide, but became pregnant. So she left for pilgrimage. And after giving birth, the foetus was buried in Kurukshetra. Later, a girl emerged from the ground, while plowing by Janak. He took her as a daughter and named her Sita.
Another story from North India is as follows:-
Janak defeated Ravana many times. According to this story of the Adbhut Ramayana, Ravana took the blood of sages in place of revenue. They cursed, he would be destroyed by this blood. Ravana disobeyed that curse and took that blood in a pitcher to Lanka. Since that time, there were bad omen in the kingdom of Lanka. Shastri told Ravana that as long as this blood was present in Lanka, there would be no end to the calamities. Hearing this, Ravana got that pitcher buried in Mithila with the aim of taking revenge from Janak. Now the same bad things started happening there, too. The minister advised the king to plow. In doing so, Janaka obtained the pot in which Sita, born of Rishi's blood, was seen. At last all the misfortunes calm down.
6. Agnija – The story is available in Anand Ramayana . It appears to be based on the story of Vedavati. After severe penance, King Padmaksha received Lakshmi as his daughter and named her Padma. On the occasion of Padma's swayamvara, a war took place and her father Padmaksha was killed. Seeing this, Padma entered into the fire, but Ravana extinguished the fire and found five divine gems there . He put in a box and took them to Lanka. No one in Lanka could lift that box. When it was opened and a girl was found there. In consultation with Mandodari, this box was buried in Mithila. Later, it was found by a Shudra and handed it to the king. After opening, a girl was seen there. Janak accepted her as his daughter.
7. Born from a fruit or tree - According to a South Indian story, Lakshmi was born from a fruit and brought up by a sage named Vedamuni, Her name was Sita and later she went to the beach for penance. Hearing about her beauty, Ravana rushed there. So she entered into the fire and burnt to ashes. After collecting the ashes, Vadmuni put it in a golden box. This box was kept by Ravana in his treasury. After some time a sound heard from that box. It was opened and found a small girl in it. Astrologers told that the girl would be the cause of Sinhala's destruction: for this reason Ravana threw the golden box into the sea. Floated and flowed towards Bengal, entered the Ganges and finally reacheed a field. The farmers saw it and gave it to their king.
8. Dasarathatmaja - Mandodari was wife of King Dasarath. She was attractive. Ravana went Dasharatha and pleaded for Mandodari. Dasharath was ready to give her. Hearing this, she created another Mandodari by magic, who was taken away by Ravana. Knowing the true story from the real Mandodari, Dasharatha terrified. The new Mandodari was Akshatyoni. Ravana came to know about the deceit. Later, Dasaratha went Lanka and secretly met the new Mandodari. The marriage of Ravana and Mandodari was celebrated and a daughter was born. Her Kundali revealed that her husband would be Ravana-Killer. Therefore, she was sealed in the box and thrown into the sea. Maharishi Kali found it and took care of her.
Why did Sita not abandon an unreliable man like Rama after the ordeal? Perhaps the author was trying to add more human touch in his plot. That's why she spent the rest of her life in Valmiki's ashram. She was pregnant, so had to bear so much pain. According to Kanwal Bharati, even after thousands of years, the Hindu does not see any resistance in this heinous crime of Ram. Even he does not consider Ram as a criminal. Many Hindu women could not connect with Sita's pain. They still recite the anti-feminist quadrupeds with reverence and madness. The reason is, the recognition of the principle of incarnation and the fruit of action, created the belief in the public that Rama is not a human, he is an incarnation of Vishnu. Whatever he was doing or what was happening with him is justified. Sita was a rebellious woman. She did not live like " Asuryampashya", so she wanted to go with her husband. Sita was the first woman who strongly opposed Rama's killing of demons. According to Valmiki Ramayana, she said – Ram, you are not doing good work. I am worried how will you remain well after so much violence? Why are you killing these people? What have they done to you? The world do not consider good to kill people without a cause. It is adharma. Your intellect has been corrupted by using weapons. When you have come to the forest wearing Valkal clothes; So why do not live by renunciation ? We are not in Ayodhya, we are in Tapovan. It should be our duty to follow the non-violent religion here.
Rama replied to Sita, " I can give up my life, I can sacrifice you and Lakshmana also, but I can never give up my promise made to the Brahmins.”
Why did the poet not highlight the rebellious Sita, who broke the Manu system and preached Dharma to Rama?
Agnipariksha- Ram-Ravan war was over, Sita returned. It was unknown that the real Sita was never abducted. The real Sita remained safe in the fire. Ravana had only taken her reflection. Ramachandra asked Sita or her reflection to publicly prove her purity. The purification of Sita was proved by the fire ordeal and the real Sita cam out from the fire safely.
Perhaps this ordeal was added later. That is why even in ancient Puranas including Mahabharata, for example - Harivamsa, Vishnupuran, Vayupuran, Bhagavata Purana, Narasimha Purana, Anamak Jatakam, Ramjatak of Siam, Khotani and Tibetan Ramayana, Gunabhadrakrit Uttara Purana do not provide any indication for ordeal.
In Ramopakhayan, Vibhishana and Lakshmana took Sita to Rama.In Paum Chariya also, there is no mention of any examination other than the pouring of petals of flowers by deities at the time of reunion of Rama and Sita. One thing is definitely written that after her exile, She alongwith her sons Luv-Kush returned to Ayodhya after the war with Rama's army. Ram asked Sita to give proof of her chastity in front of the people, then Sita said- I can enter a fire, tolerate a long hot iron rod or I can drink poison. Rama considered the ordeal to be appropriate and ordered to dig a fire pit . When the fire was ignited, Sita entered by taking the oath of chastity. The pool was filled with clean water as soon as Sita entered. After that when Rama apologized and requested her to reside in Ayodhya, but Sita refused and went to take initiation in Jainism.
The testing of Sita by Ram is not mentioned in Saritsagar,also. But other sages in Valmiki's ashram may doubt her character, so Sita herself agrees to give any test. The Lokpal makes Titibha Sarovar for her. When Sita entered into the water, the goddess Prithvi appears and took her in her lap and carried her across the lake. Seeing this, the sage wanted to curse Rama, but Sita requested them not to do so.
In most of the medieval Ramayanas, Maya Sita entered the fire and the real Sita appeared out of it. According to the Anand Ramayana, Sita was divided into three forms before her abduction, in the time of fire ordeal she became one. In Kritivas Ramayana, the curse of Mandodari was considered as main reason for the test of fire. Mandodari cursed Sita by saying that her joy of meeting Ram would suddenly be finished. The women of Lanka also cursed Sita on that occasion.
In Ramayana, Mandodari took Sita to Rama and Rama himself threw her into the fire. According to the Brahmachakra, Sita, seeing suspicious Rama, ordered a fire to be lit which was extinguished as soon as Sita entered the fire. In the Kashmiri Ramayana, Sita was shown burning for fourteen days and later she came out like a gleam of gold. In the ' Adbhut Ramayana' and ' Malayan Ramayana' , the shadow of Sita or Maya Sita was abducted by Ravana, not the real Sita. She was actually Vedavati, and the meaning of Agni Pariksha was to bring back the real Sita. In Greek mythology, plots of the abduction of a duplicate heroine are found in place of the original. Herodotus states that Helen, kidnapped and taken to Troy , was not the real Helen, but looks like her and the real Helen was in Egypt. The Greek and the Trojans fought with each other for her. In this way, the purity, chastity and fidelity of a woman was necessary to get the respect of men in all cultures of the world . Agni Pariksha is also seen from the point of view of purification. As long as Draupadi passes from one husband to another in the Mahabharata, she purifies herself by passing through the fire. In other parables, the following examinations of Sita are mentioned.:-
To put her hand in a pot full of venomous snakes, to be thrown before drunken elephants, to be abandoned in the forest of lions and tigers, to walk on very hot iron rods.
Different reasons for renunciation of Sita- Most of the writers of Ramakatha have described Sita renunciation on the imitation of Uttarkand of the popular Valmiki Ramayana. According to the different reasons for abandonment, these accounts can be divided into three classes.
Lokapavad :- The story of Uttarkand is as follows. Pregnant Sita expresseed her desire to see Tapovan in front of Rama someday. Promising to send her the next day, Rama sit with his friends and listened the stories of the ridicules. Incidentally, Rama asked Bhadra - " What do people say about Me, Sita and Bharat etc. ?" Bhadra then replied, “The ill-effects of Sita had spread in public domain. People say – we too have to bear such behavior of our women.”
Hearing this, Rama called Lakshmana and ordered Sita to leave her across the Ganges. On the pretext of showing Tapovan, Lakshmana took Sita on a chariot and dropped her near Valmiki's hermitage.
The Valmiki story is also found in Kalidas's Raghuvansh. The difference is that the complainant has been described as a spy, not a good friend. This type of description has been given in the ancient works like Uttarramcharit, Kundamala, Dashavatarcharit etc. The name of the detective in Uttaramcharita is Durmukh. His name is taken Vijaya in Adhyatma Ramayana and Anand Ramayana.
In " Chalit Ram", two disguised demons provoked Rama to oppose Sita, while " Assamese Lavkushar Yudh" discussed a dream of Rama.
Sita's renunciation has been described in detail in the Vimalsuri’s Paumchariam.
Rama himself was showing pregnant Sita the various chaityalayas in the forest. The citizens of the capital came to him. They explained the reason for their arrival, first they described the evil nature of the common people. Hearing the speech of the citizens, Rama consulted with Lakshmana, but Lakshmana opposed the abdication of Sita. Rama doubted Sita. Therefore, he called his general Kritantavadan and ordered that on the pretext of showing the Jain temple, Sita should be left in the terrible (Nimanush) forest across the Ganges. The commander did the same. Incidentally, King Bajrapandha of Pundarikpur heard lament of Sita in that forest. He brought Sita to his house, where her two sons were born.
In the ' Padmacharita' of Ravishen, the description of the ill-effects of accepting Sita has been modified upto some extent. Women are abducted and how are are accepted by their homes on return ?
An incident after Sita's abdication has been described in Hemachandrakrit Yogshastra. According to it, Rama had gone to the forest in search of his wife, but Sita could not be traced anywhere. Rama thought that Sita had been killed somewhere by a violent animal, so he returned home and organized her Shradh.
Dhobi's incident- A second section of the stories in which a special example of populism has been presented. A man (later called washerman) refused to accept his wife, who had left the house; saying, – “ I am not like Rama, who accepted Sita after living in someone else's house for a long time.”
This is probably first description in the Brihatkatha of Gunaday and still preserved in the Kathasaritsagara by Somdev. The story goes like this- one day while walking in his city in a guise, he saw a man taking his woman out of his house by holding her hand and blaming that she had gone to another's house. On this, the woman replied– “ Ram did not leave Sita even when she was in the house of the demon; Is my husband more than Ram, so he is throwing me out of his house even after going to my brother's house.?”
Hearing this, Rama was very sad and he left pregnant Sita in the forest for fear of censure. The illustration in the Bhagavata Purana is very similar to the above story of Kathasaritsagara.
The origin of the stories of Jaiminya Ashwamedha and Padmapuran about abandonment of Sita appears to be the same; Because in addition to the literal similarity in both, only one new element is found. The man who took out his wife was washerman.
Later on this story of washerman has become widespread. It has been described in the Uttarkanda of Tamil Ramayana, Ananda Ramayana, Narmad Gujarati Ramayana Saar, Prakshipat Lavakush-Kand of Ramcharitmanas etc. The Tibetan Ramayana appears to have evolved from the story of the Kathasaritsagara and the Bhagavata-Purana. The influence of public opinion is also clearly visible in it. Rama hears a man quarreling with his adulterous wife. Husband says – “You are not like other women.” To this, the wife replies – “What do you know about women, look at Sita; She stayed with Dashagriva for one lakh years, yet Rama accepted her.”
Hearing this, Rama gets suspicious about Sita and he secretly meets her. While explaining the nature of women, she tells Rama - Just as a man suffering from fever constantly remembers the cool river, in the same way, a woman suffering from desire of sex keeps on remembering a handsome man. As long as someone sees or hears her, she does not behave reprehensible, but in solitude, freed from bondage, she pacifies her sex-pain with the other.
Thus doubts strengthened in Rama's mind. He goes home and orders Sita to go anywhere and Sita leaves for some ashram with her two sons.
Picture of Ravana - According to Paumchariya, Rama has doubts about Sita's character, because Sita is said to have a picture of Ravana. According to the commentator of Jain literature, Munichandra Suri, Sita painted the feet of Ravana with the inspiration of her jealous sister-in-law. Then she showed this picture to Ram. Firstly, Ram did not pay heed to her words, then she spread this to the public through maidservants. Later, when Rama was walking in the garden of the city, wearing a secret disguise, he had to hear his condemnation for accepting Sita. Detectives also supported this point. Lakshmana took the side of Sita. But Rama ordered Sita to be released into the forest on the pretext of a pilgrimage to Kritant-Vadana.
A similar story is found in Kritivas Ramayana. In the Chandravali-written Ramayana saga, Sita, seduced by Kaikeyi's daughter Kukua , drew a picture of Ravana, which Kikavi Devi (Bharat and Shatrughna's sister-in-law) placeed on breast of the sleeping Sita and alleged that the picture was also kissed by her.
In Hindi's Shoriram, Ravana's daughter put a picture of her father on her breast, whom she kissed in her sleep. Seeing this scene, Rama beat Sita with whips; He cut her hair and called Lakshmana and ordered to kill her and bring back her heart as a proof.
The Rama Katha of Sinhala Island, Shuparnakha's daughter Adul did it. In the story of Brahmachakra, Shuparnakha herself came in disguise. The Kashmiri Ramayana has two parts, the first " Sari Rama Avatar Charitam" and the second " Lavakush Yuddha Charitam." Two poets in the Chola Empire, Kamban and Ottakothar, wrote their interpretations of the Ramayana in the 12th century. The former Ramayana is written by Kamban and the subsequent Ramayana by Ottakothar. In Valmiki Ramayana, it is considered only street gossip. While the Telugu, Kannada and Odia tales describe Sita making a shadow of Ravana, many of the legends have Surpanakha and her daughter. Sita is forced to draw a picture of Ravana by other women, including Manthara, Kaikeyi etc. The Sanskrit Kathasarita Sagar ( 11th century) and the Bengali Kirtivasa Ramayana ( 15th century) contain references of fighting between a washerman and his wife.
Other indirect causes of Ramayana include the curse of Muni Durvasa, Bhrigu's wife-slaughter, Tara's curse (after Balivardha), with sukas in the garden, Sita's previous birth condemning Muni Sudarshan, Sita's attack on Lakshmana. The story of Valmiki's penance illustrated the boon of becoming the father of Lakshmi like many stories are seen.
In Tulsidas's Gitavali, Adhyatma Ramayana, Anand Ramayana etc and many ancient Ram stories, attempts have been made to make the story of Sita renunciation unrealistic by giving another form. According to the Gitavali, Dasharatha had died before the completion of his age and Rama got rest of his life. Considering it unreasonable to spend age of his father with Sita, Rama exiled Sita at the end of his own age.
According to Ramayana, Sita considered herself an ordinary woman and her sorrows due to the sins committed in her previous birth. Seeing Rama's violent attitude towards the demons, she got worried about Rama's afterlife. Ravana requested her to leave an ordinary man like Rama,but she did not answer. Even at the time of war, she did not consider Rama as immortal. One of the reasons for the popularity of Ramakatha was Buddhist and Jain literature. Buddhists produced evidences of popularity and attractiveness by considering Rama as a Bodhisattva and Jains tried to adopt Rama in new forms by calling Valmiki's works false. According to Kripa Niwas, Madhuracharya (Acharya of the Rasik sect), neither was Sita actually abducted, nor did Brahma Ram himself raise a bow and arrow to kill a frivolous demon. Rama, Lakshmana and Sita did not go beyond Chitrakoot during their voyage.
According to the Tatvsangraha Ramayana, the story of Maya Sita comes to the fore, according to which the real Sita hides in the chest of Rama and Sita herself kills the demon Ravana. By showing the union of Rama and Sita in Kathasaritsagar, the end of story of Rama has been made happy.
Asuras and Rakshasas are mostly used interchangeably, but there is a difference between the two. The Asuras were descendants of Kashyapa, who lived on the land and fought with the gods. Whereas the demons were the children of Pulastya, who lived in the forests and fought with men. According to the architects, Ravana is considered to be a symbol of South direction (direction of Yama) and Kuber as North direction (stability/collection of wealth).
According to some scholars, the meaning of breaking the bow is taken from non-attachment. Perhaps Rama had to exile to get freedom from Sita's attachment, which was a mandatory condition for a king. According to Vedic thought, human society has to pass through four stages. Vytikram krata ( 4), treta ( 3), dvapara ( 2), kali ( 1) and then pralaya ( 0) and then 4, 3, 2, 1... Every society starts with idealism and gradually it reaches its end. Each era ends with an incarnation, such as Parashurama in the Kreta, Rama in Treta , Krishna in Dwapara and Kalki in Kali.
Even today the question remains unanswered why Sita was following Rama. She considered it her duty or she loved Rama very much. Was this decision of Sita based on social rules or emotions ? When Ram talks about rules, Sita balances by emotions. In contrast to Sita being the obedient wife in the traditional tales, Valmiki Ramayana depicts her as a vigilant woman exercising her mind. She challenges Rama's virility. Due to which, he does not want to take her with him to the forest. In many versions, it is still a mystery whether Sita accompanied Rama to the forest in royal robes or wearing a valkal.
The metropolitan cities in India have been divided according to the events of Ramayana. For example, there is Ayodhya in Varanasi and Lanka - on the opposite banks of the river Ganges. Similarly, Chitrakoot (where Rama meets Bharata) and Panchavati (where Sita is abducted) etc. are near the Ganges. According to some scholars, the extent of the events of Ramayana could not go beyond central India, but it was extended beyond the peninsula and beyond to Sri Lanka, expressing reverence for the stories of pilgrimages and places of Ramayana.
The Pratima Drama composed by Bhasa, taking advantage of the opportunity of Rama's despair of not performing his father's funeral rites, Ravana, pretending to be proficient in funeral rules, found Rama in the Himalayas for his father's soul to rest in peace. He advised Ram to search golden deer for funeral rites. Because Sita could leave the hut and he could kidnap her.
In most of the Ramayana stories, Rama is presented as an incarnation of Vishnu to save the world from the tyranny of Ravana. From a literary point of view, Rama's travels in South India indicate the direction of colonialism and the gradual expansion of the fire-worshipping Vedic Aryans. Symbolically, the meaning of the forest is taken from the mind of a pet, timid and wandering here and there. Some people consider Ravana as the originator of Rakshasa culture who opposed the Rishi culture. What was there in the culture that was not welcomed and exchanged; What were the reasons for the conflict between the two cultures ? Could the two cultures be independent of each other or should they have changed, influencing each other? The father of Ravana was the sage and mother demon, Had Valmiki thought a lot on this question ? The descriptions of the demons are shown with fierce weapons, with large eyes, claws with large nails and covered in blood. The main purpose behind making the demons scary is to justify the reasons for killing by calling them inhuman. This is how civilized countries justify their reasons for war. If the demons are not domesticated or abandoned, they too will dominate us and destroy us. That's why keeping them busy is very important.
A study of various sources reveals various things about how the nomads gathered in one place for agriculture, how the tribes living in the forest built villages and cities, how fire Worship traditions turned into temple narrative traditions ? How the original Vedic rituals were sustained in the conflict and impermanence of accepting immortality and change ? Perhaps these beliefs gave rise to the ideas of Karma , Kama , Maya and Dharma.
In the end it is no exaggeration to say that Dr. Nandini Sahu's epic 'Sita' is a unique masterpiece work, which raises many questions of women's identity in the mind of the modern reader by the humanization of Sita and the poetess treated Sita from her Gandhian point of view. She outright rejected the stigma of sati-pratha and dowry. Simultaneously, she raised the issue of environment-protection and threw light on the urgent need in the modern era for spreading the message of biological and environmental protection through Sita-Myth. I, not only, hope but have full faith that this masterpiece epic of Dr. Nandini Sahu will be fully welcomed in the both English and Hindi world and will give rise to a new discourse on the identity of women and various gender issues.

Blogs By Dinesh Kumar Mali


No Comments Available....